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For a pittance, the family astrologer rarely, a Parsi would laboriously collate; all of which can be done now, literally in two minutes, and free of cost, on your smartphone or Ipad. Your marketability shot up, if you had a non-Manglik horoscope. Horoscope matching before matrimony was almost mandatory amongst the Parsis then. Gradually, the liberals began to dismiss astrology as unZoroastrian. How can a religion which advocates Vohuman the right mind and free will believe that birth, death and marriage are predestined? They were wrong. Perhaps, Zarathushtra founded astrology, say several respected scholars.

According to the Roman historian Pompeius, our prophet was the founder of the science of foretelling the future from the stars. He was the ultimate Magi. The Qisse -i Sanjan refers to Zoroastrian high priests consulting astrological charts to determine the safest pathway for Zoroastrians fleeing Iran. Of course, the most famous Zoroastrian astrologer was Jamasp , prime minister of King Vishtasp and one of the first disciples of the Prophet. He wrote the Jamasp Namah or Jamaspi, a Nostradamus like collation of predictions of things to come in the centuries ahead The English translation by Dr Jivanji Jamshedji Modi is quite fascinating.

However, his predictions end abruptly in — the year in which the Bombay High Court framed the Scheme of Election of the trustees of the Bombay Parsi Punchayet. One apocryphal story about Jamasp , is, that the great astrologer, perhaps finding it too horrific to pen what he foresaw, passed away in shock. In the early part of the last century, Parsis from Gujarat consulted Hareshwar Joshi who also had the Gaikwads of Baroda as his clients.

This was done by devoting each day of the month, and every month of the year, to a particular divinity. To the days thus named, five more the 'Gatha days', see Ch. Traditionally, Zoroastrians pray at each change of gah, and many rituals may only be performed in one particular watch. It was a duty to celebrate these seven feasts, each of which was dedicated to one of the Amesha Spentas. In many cases, the 'name day' of a Yazata, when the day and the month were both dedicated to that divinity, was celebrated as a festival.

It seems likely that the faith developed among Eastern Iranian peoples for 11 The Background several centuries, and then spread slowly to more western parts of the Iranian realm. The Achaemenians BCE. There are strong indications that the first great Emperors of Iran, the Western Iranian Achaemenians, were already Zoroastrians. The Emperors' adherence to the faith probably did much to promote its further expansion throughout the Iranian realm. From a relatively obscure East-Iranian cult Zoroastrianism thus became the dominant religion of a world Empire.

This new prominence of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran must have had a profound influence on its further development. The ideology of the Achaemenian Empire was based, it seems, on the view that the state prospered because the Emperor enjoyed divine approval. Church and State must have been closely connected, and it can be assumed that the priesthood developed from a caste of locally based 'parish-priests' to an ecclesiastic structure capable of playing a leading role in the adminis- tration of an Empire.

Furthermore the Iranians, who had hitherto worshipped God in the open, seem to have been sufficiently impressed by the great temples of the surrounding cultures to adopt a temple cult as part of Zoroastrianism see above. Alexander the Great and the Seleucids. The non-Iranian Alexander the Great known in the Zoroastrian tradition as 'Alexander the Accursed' defeated the great Persian Empire in BCE, and a new international culture developed as a result of his conquests. Under Alexander's successors, the Seleucids, Hellenism became the dominant culture in the Middle East and a form of religion based on the Greek tradition came to play an important role there.

Zoroastrianism must therefore have lost some of its previous prestige and status, but the structure of religious life in Iran was such that the new cultural and religious impulses probably affected Zoroastrian communities only superficially; some Iranians adopted Hellenist culture and perhaps enriched it with elements of their own heritage, but most people continued to practise their traditional religion and to rely on their priests for guidance in many areas. In the course of time the Iranian religious tradition began to reassert itself as a dominant cultural force. The Parthians, who ruled large parts of the Iranian realm as successors to the Seleucids, were Zoroastrians and presumably strengthened the image of Zoroastrianism as the 'natural' religion of the Iranians.

The Sasanians CE. This renaissance of Zoroastrianism as a symbol of Iranian culture and nationhood reached its zenith under the Sasanian kings. Like the Achaemenians, the Sasanians were Persians i. Early 12 Classical Zoroastrianism Sasanian propaganda represents righteousness in the religious sphere as the chief legitimation of the new dynasty, and Church and State once more came to be very closely linked.

In the process of setting the country to rights the new establishment laid great emphasis on the need for its subjects to be 'good' Zoroastrians, which implied adherence to the religious authority of the state-backed priesthood.

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The distinction between 'good' and 'bad' Zoroastrians seems to have played a more prominent role in Sasanian religious thought than was the case before, which presumably led to a greater interest in the concept of 'orthodoxy'. Contacts with early Byzantine Christianity, which was much preoccupied with similar questions, may have furthered this process. Other developments which characterised the history of Zoroastrianism in Sasanian times include the rise of the priesthood to enormous influence and status, vigorous intellectual activity in various spheres connected with religion, and the development of an alphabet adequate to render the sounds of Avestan.

When this had been achieved the ancient sacred texts were written down, presumably for the first time, and a written Zoroastrian 'canon' came into existence. Although writing thus began to play a role in Zoroastrianism in the Sasanian era, the tradition continued to be primarily an oral one: it was not until well into the post-Sasanian era that the priesthood systematically began to write down parts of an intellectual tradition that in many ways represents the achievements of the Sasanian era.

The Islamic Conquest mid-7 th century CE. As with the Achaemenians, an era when state ideology and religious teaching reinforced one another and Zoroastrianism received full backing from the Court, came to an abrupt end when Iran was overrun by alien conquerors.

In the s and s CE, the newly Islamised Arabs mounted a succession of campaigns against the Sasanian Empire, which they subjected without much difficulty. Although the introduction of the new faith did not lead to instant mass conversions - in fact it took several centuries until Islam could be said fully to have supplanted Zoroastrianism - the culture which the conquerors brought with them rapidly developed into a highly fertile civilisation which became dominant in the entire Middle East, and Zoroastrianism was slowly relegated to a marginal position.

Whilst the community continued to need the services of ritual priests, it could no longer support the group of scholar-priests who until then had memorised, studied and developed the learned tradition, most of which had existed in oral form only. As these scholars realised that change was inevitable, they wrote down what they could of their ancient heritage. Most of the extant Pahlavi texts are 13 The Background the result of this ambitious endeavour. Although some of the ancient knowledge had thus been salvaged, standards of priestly learning inevitably declined in the centuries that followed.

The migration to India. At some stage, perhaps in the eighth or in the mid-tenth century, 37 a group of Zoroastrians from the north-eastern part of Iran decided to preserve their religion by fleeing from Muslim dominion. They found their way to India, where they became the ancestors of the community whose lives and ideas are discussed in this book.

Notes 1 See latterly Kreyenbroek The transcription z is generally preferred here. The status of Zurvanite ideas in pre-Islamic Zoroastrian theology is currently debated by scholars. The texts suggest that the male priestly establishment was uncomfortable with this as early as the Sasanian period, and very little is known about the role women may actually have played in such matters.

Kotwal; see also Modi See Modi Some Parsis have the Fareshta performed as part of the ceremonies of the first year after a death. Describing the Indian practice of his time, Modi draws attention to the fact that the Saturn can be recited on occasions which are not obviously connected with death. On solemn occasions the Saturn is normally performed by priests, but some modern Parsi laymen also do it as part of their regular devotions. On the fravashi see also below, p.

On the part of the laity in Parsi funerals see below, p. Two more elaborate purification rituals, the Bareshnum and the Riman are now seldom performed for the Parsi laity. On these ceremonies see Modi Professor Boyce herself is now inclined to doubt the accuracy of this account private communication , but it still seems plausible to the present writer. MUNSHI In the interviews informants regularly refer to ordinary family or communal observances with religious connotations, many of which may be unfamiliar to readers. Munshi described a range of such ceremonies and practices. The present chapter is based on this account and on later additions by Mrs Munshi.

It aims to offer a survey of traditional 'common' observances 1 which are known to, though not necessarily observed by, many modern urban Parsis. In practice religious traditions vary from family to family, some households may observe many of the customs described here while others may barely be aware of some of them. The interviews themselves will give some idea of these variations. This is no longer widely observed, however; most religious Parsis start the day by doing their kusti the untying and retying of the sacred cord while reciting certain prayers in a way which differs slightly from the normal procedure.

Immediately after that some Parsis face the rising sun, bow to it in respect and rub their hands over their face where the sunlight falls on it. Then most people have a bath, after which they perform the full padyab kusti, a ritual ablution of the hands and face 3 followed by the kusti ritual 16 Common Parsi Observances proper. The loban incense ceremony is a characteristic. A small incense burner containing some ash from the hearth-fire or the fire temple and some burning incense or sandalwood, is taken around the house.

As many Ashem Vohu prayers as possible should be recited while this is done.

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In traditional families the loban is done after the house has been swept and the traditional chalk designs rangoli have been made on the threshold. In most households there are no special observances during the afternoon watch, as people are generally at work. In families of working priests the faraziyat prayers are said, and some other Parsis also do this. Immediately after sunset the loban is done again in many houses, and the evening faraziyat are recited.

Customs to do with meals Traditionally Parsis were enjoined to keep silence while eating, reciting the first half of a prayer the jamvani baj or 'protective formula for eating' before beginning their meal and not speaking again until the meal was finished, when they recited the second half of the prayer. This practice, known as 'eating in baj' is now obsolete, although it was observed by some families within living memory. It is customary to keep a little food on one's plate to give to a dog one's own, a neighbour's or even a stray ; this is known as the 'dog's morsel'.


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Visiting the fire temple Immediately before a visit to an Agiary one normally has a bath, although this is not always possible as working people may go in their lunch break or after work. The head must be covered and before entering one washes the exposed parts of the body and does the kusti in the outer precincts of the fire temple. Some people first pay their respects to the well in the compound of the fire temple. One may then light an oil lamp; this is optional, however, and many people only do it on special days. The wood, which comes in various sizes and prices, is placed on a tray on the threshold of the fire chamber; it will form part of the boy, the solemn offering of wood to the fire which is made in each of the five watches of the day.

In many fire temples there are wooden boxes with separate compartments for each geh, so that those who wish their offering to be given in a particular watch can put it in the appropriate compartment. On the sandalwood tray there is usually a smaller tray with the holy ash of the fire, and one puts some of this on one's forehead. On special occasions a machi 'throne' may be offered, a construction built with six in Udwada nine pieces of sandalwood; after the machi has been offered to the fire with an accompanying Baj ceremony, the priest recites prayers for the welfare of the family. Garlands toran , usually made of flowers but sometimes of solid silver, may also be offered and hung in the fire temple.

It is customary to greet the pictures of Zarathustra and other venerable men in the fire temple before going to greet the fire. Prayers are said facing the sacred fire. Those who visit the fire temple regularly may just offer sandalwood, recite a short prayer and leave, while others may pray longer. The tray normally contains the following items: an oil lamp; a silver cone representing the mythical Mt Hara; a rose-water sprinkler; wet vermilion powder kumkum in a silver container; sugar crystals or batasa a white, sweet confection ; betel leaves; betel nut; unshelled almonds; turmeric sticks; dried dates; rice; curds; salt; flowers; and a coconut.

The ses is prepared; the person performing the ritual does the kusti, lights a divo and offers frankincense to the fire which is placed next to the ses. The recipient is made to stand on a small wooden platform patio , facing east. Kumkum marks are made, usually first on both feet though some regard this as un-Zoroastrian , and then on the forehead. A few grains of rice are stuck on the kumkum mark on the forehead, and the recipient is made to hold some items from the ses.

He or she 11 is then handed the coconut, a garland is placed round his neck and rice is showered over him. The achu michu tray contains betel leaves, betel nut, dried dates, unshelled almonds, turmeric sticks, rice, an egg, a coconut and a beaker of water. First the egg, then the smaller items held together in a betel leaf , and finally the coconut is passed around the recipient's head seven times and then thrown away to the right of his feet.

Finally, water from the beaker is poured over some grains of rice remaining in the tray. The tray itself is then held above the recipient's head and passed around it seven times. The Ovarna The aim of this ceremony is to remove evil; it is done to wish someone well and protect him. It consists of showering rice over the recipient and cracking one's knuckles on one's temples.

The ovarna is always done after the achu michu, but it may also be performed separately. The bath with milk and flowers In traditional households a child's birthday begins with a ceremonial bath. This may also be done for an adult, or on other festive occasions. A female member of the household puts some warm milk sprinkled with kumkum, rice some flower petals and rose water in the bathroom.

The recipient pours this over his body before having a bath. Suraj vadhavani rit This is a ceremony to greet the rising sun, which can be performed on any auspicious occasion. Four small bowls containing milk, sweet curds, semolina, and sweet vermicelli sev , are put on a tray which also holds fresh flowers and all the usual items of the ses. A divo is lit and the tray is put on a patio in a place from where one can see the sun. Three, five or seven ladies take part; they do their kusti and gather around the tray. Each lady in turn takes something from the contents of the ses and throws it towards the sun as a symbolic offering.

The tray is then lifted from the patio, held in the direction of the sun, and again lowered onto the patio. Finally loban is offered and the blessings of the sun are invoked. Generally on those days a number of items chickpeas, dry coconut, dates, sugar candy, flowers and fresh lime juice are placed on a silver tray, people recite their normal prayers and light a divo in honour of Behram.

The full performance of the rite, however, entails the recitation of the traditional story of Mushkil Asan, which illustrates the help which this Being can give. When Behram roj falls on a Friday the day is considered particularly auspicious and the story is usually recited as part of the ceremony. The Ardibeheshtni Chavi This is a divining ritual, intended to ask the Amesha Spenta Ardibehesht or in some cases Behram for information that is otherwise unobtainable.

First the participants do their kusti and a fire is lit in a fire vase. A kusti is wound around the book 21 times so that the key is securely fastened. Then the following formula is recited in Gujarati: Ardibehesht Behram Yazad, please tell the truth. Has XX done such-and-such a thing?

If this is true, then make the book turn and fall. Songs and performances by Goyans The Atashnu Git 'Song of the Fire' used to occupy a special place in the devotional life of the Parsis. It is normally recited by goyans professional singers on such occasions as weddings or Navjotes, and takes about two hours to perform. The song is said to have been composed on the occasion of the foundation of the Navsari Atash Behram. It is full of praise and worship for the Yazad Ardibehesht, and blessings are invoked upon the family which has invited the goyans. Singing plays an important part in traditional Parsi culture; there are special songs for some occasions, and others which can be sung at various functions.

Moving into a new house When the foundations of a new house are laid, many families have the liturgy of the Vendidad recited at the site, and gold and silver coins, sandalwood, loban, and sometimes a copy of the family tree are buried there. Before the move garlands are traditionally put over all the doors of the new house and chalk designs are made on the threshold. The same is done in the old house, where a divo is lit before leaving. In a corner of the new house, or in the kitchen, an earthen pot filled with water is placed on a heap of wheat.

Such items as betel leaves, betel nut, areca nut and a turmeric stick are put into the pot, which is covered with a piece of red cloth. A coconut is placed on top and the pot is garlanded and decorated with kumkum marks. A divo is lit and loban is offered to the fire. A portrait of Zarathustra is placed near the pot and also garlanded.

An egg is passed seven times over the threshold of the main door and then smashed on the ground. The ceremony is usually performed by the doyenne of the family in the presence of the other family members. A Jashan is always performed when an observant family moves into a new house.

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Going on a long journey When someone leaves home for a considerable period of time a sagan is usually done. At the time of leaving the person is made to dip his hand in a beaker of water left standing on the threshold, and it is customary to throw some coins into it. This is thought to ensure a safe and prosperous return. A Jashan is generally also performed. Observances connected with the phases of the moon The Full and New Moon are regarded as auspicious. A day when there is no moon is inauspicious. On the Full Moon of the Hindu month of Ashvini many Parsis cook another special dish called dudh pak pauva.

Many Parsis visit the fire temple on those days, and in some families there are special observances either on all hamkara days or on the roj of the family's favourite Yazad Behram, the Yazad of victory and success, is especially popular. Many people decorate the house with garlands and make special chalk designs on the threshold.

Where there is no permanent hearth fire or divo, incense sticks are often lit. Some families prepare a ses, on which they put a divo and garland. They then do their kusti, light the divo and burn incense near the tray. Others put fruits of the season and a beaker of milk and water on the prayer table near the pictures of the ancestors, and pray there.

Festive dishes may be cooked, while typically 'non-festive' ones are avoided. Meher, Fravardin and Ashishvang roj, though not hamkara days, are also regarded as special by many religious Parsis, who may visit the fire temple on these days. Parabs In some cases, when the day dedicated to a Yazad comes in the month dedicated to the same Being, it is regarded as a feast day in the Yazad' s honour.

Such days are known as parab; in English people sometimes speak of the birthday' of a Yazad, or of the Yazad' s 'element' such as fire or water. Some parabs are more widely celebrated than others; the following survey lists the most important of these occasions and the observances associated with them: Fravardin mahino, 15 Fravardin roj Farvardiyannu parab. This is the parab dedicated to the fravashis of the dead. Priests are often commissioned to recite prayers for the dead at the Towers of Silence; relatives of the deceased usually attend these prayers, offer their respects to the fravashis, and pray at the little fire sanctuary in the Tower precinct.

Special arrangements are made near the Tower area on this day to cope with the traffic. Meher mahino Meher roj Mehragan. This day, which is dedicated to Mithra Guj. Meher , is celebrated as a major festival by Iranian Zoroastrians but is not normally observed as a parab by Parsis. Still, many Parsis visit a fire temple on that day The Aslaji Agiary in Bombay in particular draws many visitors then, as there is a widespread belief that the Aslaji fire will grant special boons. A possible reason for this 22 Common Parsi Observances relative popularity of the day of Mithra, an ancient divinity about whom Parsis know little, 18 is the perceived connection between that Yazad and Shah Faridun, a mythical Iranian king who is venerated by many and thought to have magical powers.

This is the very popular 'birthday of the Waters', when hundreds of Parsis go to the sea shores of Bombay - elsewhere they may go to a local river - and many people also go to the fire temple. Prayers are usually offered, especially the short Ardvisur Niyayesh, which is dedicated to the Yazad of the Waters. In Bombay many people go to the sea after work but before sunset, as the prayers have to be recited before the sun goes down. They usually bring dalni poris a flat round pastry made of sweet lentils , some of which are offered to the sea while the others are eaten on the beach.

Pregnant women in particular often go there to pray. There is one lady who makes huge poris, enough for 20 people, you have to order them 15 days in advance. While offering the dalni poris some people draw on the sand the same kind of design you do for the Adar roj parab. Some people, especially in villages, bring an incense burner and they draw patterns in the sand, offer loban and perhaps even light a divo. Then you do your kusti and make your offering to the Water. In Bombay you do not normally do all this, for the water and the beaches are too dirty.

It is an occasion to enjoy, to be together; you really feel good that so many people have come out. No matter what their differences, they all realise, 'We have to do this, it is part of our religious duty and we do it. But in Bombay the sea is so polluted, I do not think that many people still do it. Some people even offer milk to the sea; they bring milk in a bottle and offer it, and bring back sea water and sprinkle it all over their homes You see many devout Parsis reciting the Ava Niyayesh 22 on the beach, along the seashore.

The longest queues on that day you will see at the Bhikha Behram Well On this day you have to queue to light your little divo near the well. Alongside the well there is an iron mesh, on which some people hang huge garlands of flowers, or they have a net made of flowers, which is symbolically offered to the Waters.

Such nets can also be offered to one's own well if there is one. Preparations for the 'birthday of the Fire' generally start in the afternoon watch of the preceding day the Uziran geh of Daepadar roj. In many families a vigil is kept throughout the night of Daepadar roj up to the dawn of Adar roj, to ensure that the fire does not go out. Mrs Munshi said: In some homes the entire kitchen is whitewashed for this parab, in which case the preparations obviously start even earlier.

Most people start preparations on Daepadar roj by having a bath, preparing a ses on which, together with the usual items, they often put a mango, which is not done on other occasions , and cleaning and washing the kitchen, and particularly the place where the fire stands - whether this is a separate hearth fire or a gas stove. Designs are made with kumkum and kharaptu 23 on the wall just above the fire All the laws of purity have to be observed during these preparations. There are flowers in the house and thick pieces of sandalwood are kept ready to keep the fire burning through the night.

When the preparations are over those present do their kusti and in traditional households everybody recites the Atash Niyayesh [prayer to the Fire]. Many people whose only source of fire in the kitchen is a gas-stove do not cook at all during this parab, to give the fire a rest. Those who do use their stove e. A visit to the fire temple is customary to celebrate the parab, and many people go to an Atash Behram instead of their own Agiary; it is usual to light a divo and to offer more sandalwood than normally.

Many weddings and Navjotes are performed on this day. In the villages, priests go to all Zoroastrian houses and recite the Atash Niyayesh in the course of the month of Adar. Bahman mahino Bahman roj. This parab is dedicated to Bahman, who has special links with animals. Some Parsis refrain from eating meat on this day; others extend this to the days of the Yazads associated with Bahman Mohor, Gosh, and Ram , 24 or to the whole month of Bahman.

Special dishes are eaten on this day, including a special type of khichri. In Navsari, dogs were traditionally fed on this occasion. Dae mahino Although there is no parab for Dae, the Creator, the month dedicated to him is very important. Jashans are performed throughout the month in fire temples, business premises, and private houses, and many Gahambars are held during this month.

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Parents usually buy new clothes for their children and many people have a festive meal or go out with friends, often to see a Parsi Gujarati play. The Muktad days Until a few years ago the Muktad Festival, which is dedicated to the fravashis of the dead and begins on the tenth day before the New Year Aspandarmad mahino Ashishvang roj , lasted for 18 days.

On each table there is also a small tray with a consecrated shyav 18 and dron, a single piece of fruit and a coconut. A divo is kept burning continuously on each table. There are private tables with a single vase for one individual fravashi or for the members of one family, and Anjuman community tables, which are for shared use and have flower vases for many people. The ceremonies for the Anjuman table are done collectively, those for the private tables separately. For the first year after death those who can afford it usually have a separate table.

Fresh flowers are put in the vases every morning. Many boys and men voluntarily offer their services to the neighbourhood fire temple during Muktad, going there as early as 3. When this is done the actual performance of the rituals begins, 29 which is normally attended by the relatives of the deceased. Muktad is a busy time for most Parsis: the laity tends to spend much time in prayer, and as the full-time priests cannot cope with the work, part-time priests lend a hand.

Nevertheless the performance of the ceremonies is often hasty, which sometimes offends those who commis- sioned them. Some people therefore set up Muktad tables in their own homes and even have the services performed there, which requires scrupulous observance of all the laws of purity.

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A full description of the priestly rituals for the Muktad would lie beyond the scope of this chapter. This food is usually consecrated by a priest, who recites Avestan prayers and symbolically offers the meal to the departed, while sandalwood and incense are offered to a fire. In fire temples where Muktad is observed for ten days, the fravashis are bid farewell on the last Gatha day, the last day of the year. A coconut is broken near the table, the flowers are removed and the vases turned upside down to signify the end of Muktad. In the Ushahin geh of that day the last watch of the night before the New Year , prayers are recited and the fravashis are bidden farewell.

The Gatha days The last five days of the year are known as the 'Gatha days' because each is named after one of the five Gathas. The appropriate Gatha is to be recited on each day. Some people in Bombay visit seven fire temples at this time, including the four Atash Behrams; others go on a pilgrimage to Udwada, Navsar or Surat. The word patet means 'repentance' and there may be some ancient connection with repenting the wrongs one has done in the past year. However, Parsis have little awareness of this and regard the occasion as a joyous part of the New Year celebrations.

New Year Navroz The first day of the Shehenshahi Parsi year 35 is an official holiday in some states in India, and all Parsi establishments are closed. The Atash Behrams are crowded; in Bombay many people visit all four Atash Behrams, which are situated in the same area. Since this is Hormazd roj, many people recite the Hormazd Yasht. The day is celebrated in style by most families; formerly there were music bands which could be hired to play popular songs in front of the house, and people played Parsi songs on the gramophone.

Towards the end of the day many people go to see a Parsi play. The Kadmis spend their New Year in a less exuberant atmosphere than the Shehenshahis. Pictures of the Prophet are decorated with garlands. Many people go to the fire temple and generally offer more sandalwood than on ordinary days. In fire temples where Muktad is observed for 18 days, the shyav is offered to the fravashis in the watch before this day begins. Every fire temple has its own 'birthday', the anniversary of the 'enthronement' of its fire.

Birthdays are considered to be very special in most Zoroastrian households, and have strong religious connotations. Many Parsis celebrate their birthday twice, once according to the Zoroastrian calendar the 'roj birthday' , and once according to the Gregorian one. Generally a sagan is performed, there is a festive ses, children are given a 'bath with milk and flowers' see above , new clothes are worn, and special dishes are cooked. Even those who do not often visit the fire temple may do so on their birthday. To many Parsis, on the other hand, the concepts of 'tradition' and 'religion' are closely linked.

The customs described here are held to belong exclusively to the Parsi tradition, and many of those interviewed seemed to perceive no essential difference between these traditions and others whose 'religious' element seems more prominent. Many features of these ceremonies, moreover, are felt to be highly symbolic and to reflect religious ideas.

Navjote This is a child's initiation as a full member of the community, for which he or she hereafter 'he' must learn the basic kusti prayers. The Navjote is generally performed well before the child reaches puberty, often at the age of seven or nine. The ceremony, which must be done before sunset, takes place in a special area designated for festive occasions bang , or in a fire temple.

The most important of these is the sudreh 'sacred shirt' , which together with the kusti is worn as a badge of one's Zoroastrian identity. He is made to wear a cap, a complete set of new clothes, and in some families a loose, smock-like garment made of embroidered silk cloth jhabhlu. A sagan is done, the child is garlanded and given a coconut to carry, and a procession is formed to go to the place where the ceremony will be held.

The mother carries a large tray containing a big silver cone, the usual items of the festive ses, and a watch for a boy or a sari for a girl. For the nahn, 40 which is normally administered by a priest who does not take part in the ceremony proper, the child is made to recite the first part of the jamvani baj ci. He is then given a small quantity of nirang consecrated bull's urine to sip, while reciting a prayer known as the nirang pivani baj 'formula for drinking nirang'. After this he is made to recite the final parts of the jamvani baj thus 'completing the baj'.

He then steps inside the bathing area, where he is given a ceremonial ablution with nirang, followed by one with milk and rose-petals, and then with water. Before the child steps onto the stage where the ceremony will be performed, the full achu michu is done. He then sits down on the stage and the ceremony begins. The child says some prayers and the priest recites blessings and solemnly invests him with the sudreh and kusti.

This concludes the formal part of the ceremony. The women of the family then gather around the child and dress him in new clothes especially made for the occasion. After a Navjote the child is usually taken to a fire temple, where a machi may be offered.

Later there is usually a big celebration, which ends with a traditional Parsi meal served on banana leaves. Some families have a fashan or a Fareshta ceremony done, vows to do this have often been made beforehand. Furthermore, the parents may take the child on a pilgrimage to the Atash Behram at Udwada. The rice which is showered over the child, and also the flowers, coconut and other contents of the ses, are collected and kept for seven days. On the eighth day - the varovar - a sagan is done for the child and 28 Common Parsi Observances the family visits the fire temple.

In the evening they go to the seashore and the items are thrown into the sea together with some fresh flowers. Puberty When an adolescent wears clothes associated with adulthood for the first time - a sari in the case of girls, a high Tarsi cap' pheta or paghri for boys - there may be a sagan and a celebration. This is done more often for girls than boys. When a girl has her first period a little celebration is performed in some households; this was done more widely in earlier days.

Since the girl is in an impure state it is impossible to do a sagan, but festive food is often prepared and the girl is given a separate set of things to use during menstruation. Weddings A wedding is an important event in a traditional Parsi household. Lyrics and meaning for Chaiyya Chaiyya from Dil Se!

Chaiyya Chaiyya draws its inspiration from the song, Thaiyya Thaiyya by 13th century Sufi poet, Bulleshah, although only in spirit, for all its lyrical magic is by the Bard of Bombay, Gulzar!. Al Quran with Urdu Translation. Shere does not have an equivalent English meaning, however "sher" in urdu translates to "tiger" in English. It is a huge news website of Pakistan. Jump to: navigation, search. Hindi and Urdu are generally understood in linguistic terms as two forms or dialects of a single language, Hindustani lit "of Hindustan" , that are written in two different scripts: Devanagari for Hindi and a modified Perso.

In addition, Alisha is an English variant transcription of Alice. Lovely Shairy, LovelyShairy. In fact, the different colors of jade each have their own meaning or "properties.

This section of LyricsRaag. Normally 'Assalam-o-alakium', a religious greeting, is still the most common greeting for all age groups, kya haal hay how are you? The aim of this dictionary is to make Urdu easy both for experts and beginners. There's nothing to English. Hastmaithun ki habit ko chodne ka best tarika for boys in Hindi and Urdu Young age ek aisi age hoti ha jis me padhne wali bad and good habit ka effect lambe samay tak I mean long life tak baki rehta ha, young boys or young girls ko chahiye ke who apni age ke golden period ki importance ko samjhe and kisi bhi gandi and buri aadat me na padhe but some time aisa hota ha ke bure and gande friends.

Aur uski sharmgah yoni, guptang se khoon nikalt he jo ki ganda hota hai ab agar ayesi condition me sex - mubashrat sambhog kiya jaye ga to isse nuksan ka dar hai isliye menstrual cycle me agr sex karna hi ho to sirf apni biwi patni wife se upar upar hi sex kar. Naats are praise of the prophet Muhammed peace be upon him , and hamd is praise of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala. Official Music and Video.

Urdu is also the national language of Pakistan. Previous Next. English to Urdu and Urdu to English Dictionary and Hum Qafia Words Among all the various varieties of the dictionaries a digital dictionary is usually the most frequently-consulted category. How to write Irha in Urdu Arabic English. Some basic question and answer examples are also shown. Directed by Ram Gopal Varma. Urdu meaning The more the sweat the more the reward. Maira is an indirect Quranic name for girls that has two meanings from two different roots, both of which are mentioned in the Quran. Translate into english.

Normally, it's not deniable: in Urdu as in English, it would be odd to say that you have to do something but you won't do it. What we dreamt is sometimes meaningful. Assalamualaikum is an Islamic way of greeting one another when people meet, and Waalaikumsalam is the best answer for Salam. The first meaning comes from the M-W-R root and means "light", "swift", "fast-moving", "penetrating" an arrow or bullet that's able to penetrate an object. Khwab Mein Samandar Dekhna Ki Tabeer In Urdu — Bohat bare samandar ko behar kehte hain samandar ya bahira namkeen pani ke aik bare pheelao ko kehte hain aur samandar ke bare mein dekhe janay wale khawab mukhtalib matlab rakhte hain.

See more ideas about Manager quotes, Quotations and Quote. Ginte Yeh aasan sabaq aap ko sifr se lay kar sow tak sikhaye ga.

Takhte Jamshed (Persepolis), Iran Part 12 (Travel Documentary in Urdu Hindi)

But if you dig the meaning of these words, you will definitely fall in love with Urdu. See more ideas about Urdu words, Urdu words with meaning and Hindi words. Upwork is the leading online workplace, home to thousands of top-rated Urdu to English Translators. SenderCircuit Bhai. Meaning of Maira. Actually I am familiar with Urdu scripts and here facility to share with these scripts is not possible so I am trying to use sound based Roman Urdu. Allama iqbal sher is difficult to understand but has a lot of meaning in it. We update this dictionary on daily basis even if you are not able to find any word typed in the search box, our database will save that word and it will be available in the next 24 hours with complete.

https://dogerafi.gq Information about email in the AudioEnglish. It's part of Inheritance of Loss, a novel by Kiran Desai. Urdu Alphabet. By the growing brightness of the morning. Because typing is natural you don't have to remember complex Urdu keyboard layout or spend hundreds of hours doing speed test. Urdu Meaning Check the other expressions we already translated, or use our forum to have a new word or expression translated in all languages.

Welcome to islamicbook. Also note the spelling and the pronunciation of the name Mai and check the initials of the name with your last name to discover how it looks and sounds. You can also submit here double meaning sms. May all your lion encounters roar with powerful meaning. Hindi is written in the Devanagari script and uses more Sanskrit words, whereas Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script and uses more Arabic and Persian words. See the meaning of the word mai-kada at Rekhta urdu dictionary. Even you can find Urdu speakers across the World.

Bacha bhagal mai dandora sher mai. If you can provide recordings, please contact me. Allama Iqbal Shayari sms in Urdu for your friends. Accurate Urdu translation of Zenith. This blog is specially for kids cartoons, no irrelevant video is not posted in it. Ultimately it is you who determines your own unique and symbolic relationship with the lion.